Credit-Based-Grading-System for Assessment of Students
Currently an important concern which is strongly mentioned in recent times by the University Grants Commission (UGC), the National Assessment and Accreditation Council (NAAC), is the need to develop a Choice-Based Credit System (CBCS) in tune with global trends and the adoption of a proper grading system for measuring performance of the learner. Recommendation of the UGC in its Action Plan for Academic and Administrative Reforms “……. Curricular flexibility and learners’ mobility is an issue that warrants our urgent attention. These can be addressed by introducing credit based courses and credit accumulation. In order to provide with some degree of flexibility to learners, we need to provide for course duration in terms of credit hours and also a minimum as well as a maximum permissible span of time in which a course can be completed by a learner…Choice-Based Credit System (CBCS) imminently fits into the emerging socioeconomic milieu, and could effectively respond to the educational and occupational aspirations of the upcoming generations. In view of this, institutions of higher education in India would do well to invest thought and resources into introducing CBCS. Aided by modern communication and information technology, CBCS has a high probability to be operational efficientlyand effectively — elevating learners, institutions and higher education system in the country to newer heights…”.
The major system engaged in Higher Education in the global scenario is operating a system of credits. The European Credit Transfer System (ECTS), the ‘National Qualifications Framework’ in Australia, the Pan-Canadian Protocol on the Transferability of University Credits, the Credit Accumulation and Transfer System (CATS) in the UK as well as the systems operating in the US, Japan, etc are already in a system of credit to measure the level of competency.
In tune of the above scenario the Presidency University has adopted a credit-based-grading- system for the purpose of assessment of the students, which will be acceptable to the global universities.
Advantages of the Credit-Based-Grading-System:
- Respects ‘Student Autonomy’. Represents a shift in focus from teaching based to learning education since the workload is based on theinvestment of time in learning.
- Records student’s workload realistically. It calculates not only the time spend by the students in lectures or seminars but also the time they need for individual learning and the preparation of examinations etc.
- Helps self-learning.
- Students may undertake as many credits as they can cope with without repeating all the courses (papers) in a given semester if they unsuccessful in one or more courses (papers).
- Offers more flexibility to the students allowing them to choose inter-disciplinary (known as Extra-Departmental papers) courses along with major courses, which makes education more broad-based.
- Facilitates students' mobility. Providing opportunity to transfer the credit earned at one institution to another. Provide more transparency and compatibility between different educational structures.
- 1.The amount of learning indicated by a credit value is based on an estimate using the idea of hours of learning. The number of hours of learning provides a rough guide to how long it will take a typical student, on average, to achieve the learning outcomes specified for the module or programme. The estimate of notional hours of learning doesn't just include formal classes, but estimates the amount of time spent in preparation for these classes, along with private or independent reading and study, plus revision and the completion of course-work required on the module.
- 2.The university shall also formulate policy for credit transfer that can allow a student to transfer credits which have already been awarded to the student (vide clause 37 of the Regulation).
- 3.A student may be able to transfer credits to another programme within the university, or may be able to transfer credit towards a programme in a different institution with which the university has a formal agreement of mutual credit transfer. Credit transfer depends on whether the accumulated credit is relevant to the programme to which the student wants to transfer.
- 4.Grade, SGPA & CGPA: Student shall be graded in each course with 7 deferent grades in a scale of 10. Based on marks obtained in aggregate in each paper of UG/PG degree course following grade and grade points shall be awarded (given in 5). Student(s) failing to obtain minimum D-grade in individual module/paper will be declared as unsuccessful irrespective of SGPA/CGPA value to qualify in each semester. Students will be awarded SGPA/CGPA values considering both honours and extra-departmental courses in bachelor’s degree course.
5.Classification of grades:
% marks obtained Grade Grade Point 90 and above A++ 10 80 to 89 A+ 9 70 to 79 A 8 60 to 69 B 7 50 to 59 C 6 40 to 49 D 5 <40 (Unsuccessful) E 0
Provided further a student securing 39.1 % to 40% of marks in any paper or in aggregate may be deemed to have obtained 40% of marks while considering the award of grade and grade point. There will be a Semester Grade Points Average (SGPA) calculated for each semester on the basis of grades obtained in that semester. The SGPA for the jth semester is calculated as:
Where n is the number of courses in the jth semester, mi denotes the numerical value of the grade obtained in the ith course of the semester, ci denotes the number of credit for the ith course of the semester. For example, consider the numerical grade and credit of a student given in the table below:
Course CourseI CourseII CourseIII CourseIV CourseV CourseVI CourseVII Credit 2 2 4 2 2 2 2 Numerical Grade 7 8 5 7 6 8 8
SGPA for the jth Semester is calculated as –
Cumulative Grade Point Average (CGPA) for k semesters is given as:
where Cj is the total number of credits in the jth Semester.
For example, consider the SGPA's obtained by a student in four semesters along with total credit in each semester is given as follows:
Semester First Second Third Fourth SGPA 6.75 6.00 8.12 7.62 Total Credit 16 20 18 16
- 6.Extra-Departmental papers have the adequate relevance in the respective programme according to their credits. The credit points earned in Extra Departmental papers will be counted to calculate the final CGPA. So any Extra-Departmental paper has to be treated as relevant as Major paper.
- 7.A student shall be provided with a final record of total marks obtained along with the final grade at the end of the respective degree course.
- 8.Separate account in the form of a credit transcript for accumulated credits may be issued against application annually or on completion of the programme, or both for availing of the credit transfer options.
Some Salient Features of Credit-Based-Grading-System in the Presidency University: